Andean Research




This list should be complemented with references cited in: 



Dollfus, O.
1986 The tropical Andes: a changing mosaic. In Anthropological history of andean polities, J. Murra, N. Wachtel and J. Revel eds.: 11-22. Cambridge University Press.

Kroeber, A.
1944 Peruvian Archaeology in 1942. Viking Publications in Anthropology 4. Wenner Gren Foundation.

Lanning, Edward
1965 Peru Before The Incas. Prentice Hall.

Paulsen, Allison
1976 Environment and Empire: climatic factors in prehistoric Andean culture change. World Archaeology 8:121-132.

Rowe, John
1966 Urban settlements in Ancient Peru. Ñawpa Pacha 1: 1-28.

Schaedel, Richard
1985 The Transition from Chiefdom to State in Northern Peru. In Development and Decline; The Evolution of Sociopolitical Organization. H.J. Claessen, P. Van Der Velde and M. Smith eds.:156-169.

Willey, Gordon R.
1953 Prehistoric Settlement Patterns in the Viru Valley, Peru. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 155. Washington D.C.

Wilson, David
1988 Prehispanic settlement patterns in the lower Santa Valley, Peru: a regional perspective on the origins and development of complex North Coast society. Smithsonian Institution.


Athens, John

1980 El Proceso Evolutivo de la Sociedades Complejas y la Ocupacion del Periodo Tardío en los Andes Septentrionales del Ecuador. Instituto Otavaleño de Antropologia.

Guffroy, J., P. Kaulicke and K. Makowski
1989 La Prehistoria del Departamento de Piura: estado de los conocimientos y problemática. Bulletin de l'Institut Francais d'Etudes Andines 18/2:117-142.

Hill, B.
1975 A new chronology of the Valdivia ceramic complex from the coastal zone of Guayas Province, Ecuador. Ñawpa Pacha 10-12: 1-32.

Lathrap, D., J. Marcos and J. Zeidler
1975 Real Alto- An Ancient Ceremonial Center. Archaeology 30:2-13.

Meggers, Betty, C. Evans and E. Estrada
1965 The Early Formative period on coastal Ecuador: The Valdivia and Machalilla phases. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology 1, Washington.

Ortiz, L.
1981 Pasado Antiguo del Ecuador: Evolucion Social. Ediciones Consejo Editorial, Quito.

Salomon, Frank
1980 Los Señorios Etnicos de Quito en la Epoca de los Incas. Coleccion Pendoneros 10. Otavalo. 1989 Vertical Politics on the Inca Frontier. In Anthropological History of Andean Polities, J. Murra, N. Wachtel and J. Revel eds.:89-118. Cambridge University Press.

Stothert, Karen
1976 The Early prehistory of the Santa Elena Peninsula, Ecuador: continuities between the preceramic and ceramic cultures. Actas del 41 Congreso Internacional de Americanistas 2:88-98. Mexico.



Bonnier, Elizabeth, and C. Rozenberg
1988 Du sanctuaire au hameau. A propos de la néolithisation dans la cordillère des Andes. L'Anthropologie 92/3:983-996.

Cohen, M.
1977 Population pressure and the origins of agriculture: an archaeological example from the coast of Peru. In Origins of Agriculture, C. Reed ed.:135-178. Mouton Publishers.

Feldman, R.A.
1983 From maritime chiefdom to agricultural state in Formative coastal Peru. In Civilizations in the Americas: Essays in Honor of Gordon R. Willey, A. Kolata and R. Leventhal eds. University of New Mexico.

Lynch, T.
1973 Harvest, timing, transhumance and the process of domestication. American Anthropologist 75: 1254-1259.
1980 Guitarrero Cave, Early Man in the Andes. Academic Press.

Moseley, Michael
1975 The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization. Cummings, Menlo Park.

Osborn, Alan J.
1977 Strandloopers, Mermaids, and Other Fairy Tales: Ecological Determinants of Marine Resource Utilization -The Peruvian Case. In For Theory Building in Archaeology, L. Binford ed.:157-206. Academic Press.

Patterson, Tom
1983 The Historical Development of Coastal Andean Preceramic Societies. Andean Past 2:21-37. Ithaca.

Quilter, Jeffrey and J. Stocker
1983 Subsistence Economies and the Origins of Andean Complex Societies. American Anthropologist 85/3: 545-562.

Raymond, Scott
1981 The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization: a reconsideration of the evidence. American Antiquity 46:806-821.

Richardson III, James
1981 Modeling the development of sedentary maritime economies of the coast of Peru: a preliminary statement. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 50/5:139-150. Pittsburgh.

Rick, John
1980 Prehistoric Hunters of the High Andes. Academic Press.
1983 Cronología, Clima y Subsistencia en el Precerámico Peruano. Instituto de Estudios Andinos, Lima.

Wilson, D.
1981 Of Maize and Man: a critique of the maritime hypothesis. American Anthropologist 83:93-120.


Burger, Richard L.
1988 Unity and heterogeneity within the Chavín Horizon. In Peruvian Prehistory, R. Keatinge ed.:99-144. Cambridge University Press.
1989 El horizonte Chavín ¿Quimera estilística o metamorfosis económica? Revista Andina 7/2:543-573.

Keatinge, Richard
1981 The nature and role of religious diffusion in the early stages of state formation: and example of Peruvian prehistory. In The transition to statehood in the New World, G.D. Jones and R.R. Kauts eds.:172-187. Cambridge University Press.

Lathrap, Donald
1985 "Jaws": the control of power in the early nuclear american ceremonial centers. In Early Ceremonial Architecture in the Andes. C.B. Donnan ed: 241-267. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington D.C.

Menzel, D. J. Rowe and L. Dawson
1964 The Paracas Pottery of Ica: a Study in Style and Time. Berkeley.

Patterson, T.C.
1971 Chavin: an interpretation of its spread and influence. In Dumbarton Oaks Conference on Chavin, E. Benson ed.:29-48. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington D.C.

Pozorski, T.
1983 The Caballo Muerto Complex and its place in the Andean chronological sequence. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 52:1-40.

Early Intermediate

Donnan C.B. and C. Mackey
1978 Ancient Burial Patterns of the Moche Valley, Peru. University of Texas Press, Austin.

Brennan, Curtis

1982 Cerro Arena: Origins of the Urban Tradition on the Peruvian North Coast. Current Anthropology 23: 247-254. (and JFA 7: 1-22, 1980).

Haas, Jonathan
1985 Excavations on Huaca Grande: An Initial View of the Elite of Pampa Grande, Peru. Journal of Field Archaeology 12: 391-409.

Moseley, M.
1975 Prehistoric Principles of Labor Organization in the Moche Valley, Peru. American Antiquity 40:191-196.

Paulsen, A.
1983 Huaca del Loro revisited: The Nasca-Huarpa conection. In Andean Past, D. Sandweiss ed.: 98-109. Cornell University.

Shimada, Izumi
1978 Economy of a prehistoric urban context: commodity and labor flow at Moche V Pampa Grande, Peru. American Antiquity 43/4:569-92.
1994 Pampa Grande and the Mochica Culture. University of Texas Press.

Strong, W.C.
1957 Paracas, Nazca, and Tiahuanacoid cultural relationships in south coastal Peru. Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeology 13.

Middle Horizon

Anders, Martha
1981 Investigation of State Storage Facilities in Pampa Grande, Peru. Journal of Field Archaeology 8: 391-404.
1989 Azángaro: estructura y función de un sitio planificado. I: Notas para el modelo Huari como estado secular centralizado. Boletín de Lima 64: 15-32 and
II: Estandarización vs. variación: anomalía de dos formas arquitectónicas en un sitio Huari. Boletín de Lima 65: 51-66.

Bawden, Garth
1982 Galindo: A Study in Cultural Transition During the Middle Horizon. In Chan Chan: Andean Desert City. Michael Moseley and Kent Day eds.: 285-320. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

Isbell, W.H.
1985 El orígen del estado en el valle de Ayacucho. Revista Andina 3/1:57-83.
1988 City and State in Middle Horizon Huari. In Peruvian Prehistory, R. Keatinge ed.:164-189. Cambridge University Press.

---- and K. Schreiber
1978 Was Huari a State? American Antiquity 43: 372-389

Menzel, Dorothy
1964 Style and Time in the Middle Horizon. Ñawpa Pacha 2:1-106.
1968 New Data on the Huari empire in Middle Horizon epoch 2A. Ñawpa Pacha 6:47-114.

Schreiber, K.
1987 Conquest and Consolidation: a comparison of the Wari and Inka occupations of a highland Peruvian valley. American Antiquity 52/2: 266-284.

Shady, R.
1988 La época Huari como interacción de las sociedades regionales. Revista Andina 6/1: 67-133. Cuzco.

Stanish, Charles
1989 Household Archaeology: Testing Models of Zonal Complementarity in the South Central Andes. American Anthropologist 91:7-24.

Late Intermediate

Cavallaro, Rafael

1991 Large-site Methodology: Architectural Analysis and Dual Organization at Chan Chan. Ocassional Papers No. 5. Department of Anthropology, University of Calgary.

----, and Izumi Shimada
1988 Some Thoughts on Sican Marked Adobes and Labor Organization. American Antiquity 53: 75-101.

Epstein, Stephen M. e Izumi Shimada
1983 Metalúrgia Sicán: Una reconstrucción de la producción de la aleación de cobre en el Cerro de los Cementerios, Perú. Beitrage zur Allgemeinen und Vergleichenden Archaeologie, band 5:........ Bonn.

Keatinge, R. and K. Day
1975 Urban settlement systems and rural sustaining communities: an example from Chan Chan's hinterland. Journal of Field Archaeology 2: 215-227.
1977 Religious forms and secular functions: the expansion of state bureaucracies as reflected in prehistoric architecture on the Peruvian North Coast. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 293: 229-45.

Keatinge, R. and Geoffrey Conrad
1983 Imperialist Expansion in Peruvian Prehistory: Chimu Administration of a conquered territory. Journal of Field Archaeology 10: 275-295.

Kolata, A.
1982 Chronology and Settlement Growth. In Chan Chan: Andean Desert City. Michael Moseley and Kent Day eds.: 97-117. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

MacKay, Carol
1987 Chimu administration in the provinces. In The Origins and Development of the Andean State. Jonathan Haas, T. Pozorski and S. Pozorski eds.: 121-129. Cambridge University Press.

McEwan, Gordon
1990 Some formal correspondences between the imperial architecture of the Wari and Chimú cultures of Ancient Peru. Latin American Antiquity 1(2): 97-116.

Rowe, John
1948 The Kingdom of Chimor. Acta Americana 6:26-59.

Shimada, Izumi
1985 Perception, procurement, and management of resources: archaeological perspective. In Masuda Shozo, Shimada I. and Morris C. (Eds.) (1985). Andean ecology and civilization: an interdisciplinary perspective on Andean ecological complementarity. (pp. 357-399). Tokio: University of Tokio Press.
1990 Cultural Continuities and Discontinuities on the Northern North Coast of Peru, Middle-Late Horizons. In The Northern Dynasties: Kingship and Statecraft in Chimor. M. Moseley and A. Cordy-Collins eds.:297-392. Dumbarton Oaks.

in press The regional states of the coast during the Late Intermediate Period: archaeological evidence, etnohistorical record and art outline. In Pre-Inca States and Inca Kingdoms, L. L. Minelli ed. Milano.

Topic, John
1983 Coast-Highland Relations in Northern Peru: Some Observations on Routes, Networks, and Scales of Interaction. In Civilization in the Ancient Americas, R. Leventhal and A. Kolata: 237-159. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

----, and Michael Moseley
1983 Chan Chan: a case of urban change in Peru. Nawpa Pacha 21: 153-183. Institute of Andean Studies, Berkeley.

Late Horizon

Conrad, Geoffrey
1981 Cultural Materialism, Split Inheritance and the Expansion of Ancient Peruvian Empires. American Antiquity 46:3-26.

---, and D. Rice
1989 Proyecto Osmore: Introduction to the Study of Late Prehistoric Vertical Connections. In Ecology, Settlement and History in the Osmore Drainage, Peru. D. Rice, C. Stanish and P. Scarr eds.:321-327. BAR International Series 545.

Costin, C.L. and T. Earle
1989 Status distinction and legitimation of Power as reflected in changing patterns of consumption in Late Prehispanic Peru. American Antiquity 54: 691-714.

D'Altroy, T. and T. Earle
1984 Staple Finance, wealth finance, and storage in the Inka political economy. Current Anthropology 26: 187-197.

----, and R. Bishop
1990 The provincial organization of Inca ceramics. American Antiquity 55:120-138.

Dillehay, T.
1976 Tawantinsuyu, integration of the Chillon valley: a case of Inca geopolitical mastery. Journal of Field Archaeology 5, 456-473.
1979 Prehispanic resource sharing in the central Andes. Science 204:24-31.
1987 Estrategia política y económica de las etnías locales del Valle de Chillón durante el periodo prehispánico. Revista Andina 5/2:407-456.

Earle T.
1985 Commodity Exchange and Markets in the Inka State: Recent Archaeological Evidence. In Markets and Marketing, S. Plattner ed.:369-397. University Press of America.

Hastorf, C.
1990 The effect of the Inka state on Sausa agricultural production and crop consumption. American Antiquity 55/2:262-290.

Morris, C.
1982 The Infrastructure of Inka Control in the Peruvian Central Highlands. In The Inca and Aztec States, 1400-1800: Anthropology and History, G. Collier, R. Rosaldo and J. Wirth eds.:153-171. Academic Press, NY.
1986 Storage, Supply and Redistribution in the Economy of the Inca State. In Anthropological History of Andean Polities, J. Murra, N. Wachtel and J. Revel eds.:59-68. Cambridge University Press.

Menzel, Dorothy
1959 The Inca occupation of the south coast of Peru. Southwestern Journal of Anthroplogy 15:125-142.

Murra, John
1975a La Organización Económica del Estado Inca. Siglo XXI. Mexico.
1975b El control vertical de un máximo de pisos ecológicos en la economía de las sociedades andinas. In Formaciones políticas y económicas del mundo andino. Lima, Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.
1985a "El Archipielago Vertical" Revisited. Andean ecology and civilization, S. Masuda, I. Shimada I. and C. Morris, eds.:3-14. Tokio: University of Tokio Press.
1985b The Limits and Limitations of the "Vertical Archipielago" in the Andes. Andean ecology and civilization, S. Masuda, I. Shimada I. and C. Morris, eds.:15-20. Tokio: University of Tokio Press.

Netherly, P.
1988 El Reino de Chimor y el Tawantinsuyu. In La Frontera del Estado Inca, T. Dillehay and P. Netherly eds.: 105-129. BAR International Series 442.

Patterson, T.C.
1991 The Inca Empire: The Formation and Desintegration of a Pre-capitalist State. Berg, NY.

Schaedel, R.
1978 Early State of the Incas. In The Early State, H. Claessen, G. Skalnik eds.:289-320. Mouton.

Stanish, C.
1989 An Archaeological Evaluation of an Ethnohistorical Model in Moquegua. In Ecology, Settlement and History in the Osmore Drainage, Peru. D. Rice, C. Stanish and P. Scarr eds.:321-327. BAR International Series 545.

Toland, J.D.
1987 Discrepancies and Dissolution: breakdown of the early Inca state. In Early State Dynamics. P. Claessen and Van der Velde eds.:138-154.


Berberian, E. y J. Arellano
1980 Desarrollo Cultural Prehispanico en el altiplano sur de Bolivia. Primera Aproximacion. Revista do Museu Paulista 27:259-81. Sao Paulo.

Browman, D.L.
1984 Tiwanaku: Development of Interzonal Trade and Economic Expansion in the Altiplano. In Social and Economic Organization in the Prehispanic Andes, D.L. Browman, R.L. Burger and Mario Rivera eds.:117-142. BAR International Series 194.

Byrne de Caballero, G.
1984 El Tiwanaku en Cochabamba I. Arqueología Boliviana, 1. La Paz.

Julien, Catherine
1983 Hatunqolla: a view of the Inca rule in the Titicaca Plateau. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Kidder II, Alfred
1955 Algunos problemas de la primitiva arqueología de la Hoya del Titicaca. Revista del Museo Nacional de Antropología y Arqueología 2/2:46-49. Lima.

Kolata, A.
1985 El Papel de la Agricultura Intensiva en la Economía Política del Estado Tiwanaku. In La Problemática Tiwanaku-Huari en el Contexto Panandino del Desarrollo Cultural, Diálogo Andino No.4, Arica.
1986 The Agricultural Foundations of the Tiwanaku State: A View from the Heartland. American Antiquity 51:748-762.

La Lone, M. and D. La Lone
1987 The Inca State in the Southern Highlands: State Administrative and Production Enclaves. Etnohistory 34:47-62.

Lumbreras, L.G.
1974 Los Reinos post-Tiwanaku en el area altiplánica. Revista del Museo Nacional 40: 55-85. Lima.

Lynch, T.
1983 Camelid Patoralism and the Emergence of Tiwanaku Civilization in the South-Central Andes. World Archaeology 15:1-14.

Mujica, Elias
1985 Altiplano-coast relationships in the south central Andes: from indirect to direct complementarity. Andean ecology and civilization. S. Masuda, I. Shimada and C. Morris:103-140. Tokio: University of Tokio Press.

----, M.A. Rivera and T.F. Lynch
1983 Proyecto de Estudio Sobre la Complementaridad Económica Tiwanaku en los Valles Occidentales del Centro-Sur Andino. Chungará 11:85-109.

Saignes, T.
1986 The Larecaja valley and ecological complementarity. In Murra, John V., Wachtel N. and Revel J. (Eds.)(1986) Anthropological history of andean polities (pp. 321-354). NY: Cambridge University Press.


Browman, David
1984 Prehispanic Aymara expansion: the Southern Altiplano and San Pedro de Atacama. Estudios Atacameños 7: 236-252.

Berenguer, J., and P. Dauelsberg
1989 El Norte Grande en la orbita de Tiwanaku. In Culturas de Chile: Prehistoria, J. Hidalgo et al. eds.: 129-180. Santiago.

Bittman B., G. LePaige and L. Nuñez
1978 La Cultura Atacameña. Ministerio de Educación. Santiago de Chile.

Llagostera, Agustín
1976 Hipótesis sobre la expansión Incaica en la vertiente occidental de los Andes Meridionales. In Homenaje al Dr Gustavo Le Paige, H. Niemeyer ed.: 203-218. Anales de la Universidad del Norte 10, Antofagasta.

Muñoz, Ivan
1989 El Periodo Formativo en el Norte Grande. In Culturas de Chile: Prehistoria, J. Hidalgo et al. eds.: 107-128. Santiago.

Nuñez Atencio, L.
1989b The evolution of a valley: population and resources of Tarapacá over a millenium. In Anthropological history of andean polities, J. Murra, N. Wachtel and J. Revel eds.: 23-34. Cambridge University Press.

---- and T. Dillehay
1979 Movilidad Giratoria, Armonía Social y Desarrollo en los Andes Meridionales: Patrones de Tráfico e Interacción Económica. Universidad de Chile, Antofagasta.

Rivera, M.A.
1984 Altiplano and Tropical Lowland Contacts in Northern Chile Prehistory: Chinchorro and Alto Ramirez Revisited. In Social and Economic Organization in the Prehispanic Andes, D.L. Browman, R.L. Burger and Mario Rivera eds.:117-142. BAR International Series 194.
1991 The Prehistory of Northern Chile: a synthesis. In Journal of World Prehistory 5/1:1-49.

Schiappacasse V., V. Castro and H. Niemeyer
1989 Los Desarrollos Regionales en el Norte Grande (1000 a 1400 dC).In Culturas de Chile: Prehistoria, J. Hidalgot al. eds.: 181-220. Santiago.



 Andean Research


Tiwanaku and Andean Archaeology
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Revised: 29 May 1999.